måndag 5 december 2016

Arabvärlden en enorm utmaning

En FN rapport (Arab Human Development Report 2016) visar på vilka utmaningar och möjligheter arabvärlden står inför.
En tredjedel av arabvärldens befolkning består av ungdomar (15-29 år) detta medför stora möjligheter för arabvärlden att utvecklas, men samtidigt är det en enorm utmaning inte bara för arabvärlden utan också för Europa. Omkring 30 % av de unga är arbetslösa (medeltal för övriga världen 14%) det betyder att många löper stor risk att marginaliseras och i värsta fall lockas med i extrema och våldsamma grupper.
De arabiska ledarna verkar inte ha förmåga  att skapa nya jobb för den unga generationen, om det inte blir en förändring kan den nuvarande flyktingströmmen till Europa bara vara en liten förvarning om vad som är på kommande.
Av rapporten framgår också att krig och våldsamheter är ett stort problem bland den arabiska befolkningen.
Araberna utgör endast 5 % av världens befolkning men 45 % av terrorattackerna i världen utfördes bland dem.
Arabvärlden stod för 68 % av dödsfall i krig, 47 % av dem som är internt fördrivna (internally displaced) och 58 % av världens flyktingar.
Man behöver inte vara någon profet för att inse att om inte verkligt stora saker förändras inom arabvärlden kommer situationen där att bli ännu mer kaotisk än vad den är idag med stora följdverkningar för bland annat Europa.
Att påverka situationen i en positiv riktning har visat sig vara en mycket svår sak.

Kort artikel i The Economist:
Another Arab awakening is looming, warns a UN report
IN DECEMBER 2010 Egypt’s cabinet discussed the findings of their National Youth Survey. Only 16% of 18-29-year-olds voted in elections, it showed; just 2% registered for volunteer work. An apathetic generation, concluded the ministers, who returned to twiddling their thumbs. Weeks later, Egypt’s youth spilled onto the streets and toppled President Hosni Mubarak.

The UN’s latest Arab Development Report, published on November 29th, shows that few lessons have been learnt. Five years on from the revolts that toppled four Arab leaders, regimes are ruthlessly tough on dissent, but much less attentive to its causes.

As states fail, youth identify more with their religion, sect or tribe than their country. In 2002, five Arab states were mired in conflict. Today 11 are. By 2020, predicts the report, almost three out of four Arabs could be “living in countries vulnerable to conflict”....

UNDP rapport i sin helhet:
Arab Human Development Report 2016: Youth and the prospects for human development in changing reality
The point of departure of the report is the demographic fact that the current youth generation is the largest youth cohort this region has had over the past 50 years, making up 30% of its population of 370 million. The report argues that Arab countries can achieve a great leap forward in development, reinforce stability and secure such gains in a sustainable manner, if they adopt policies that give youth a stake in shaping their societies and put them at the centre—politically, socially and economically...

...First, that while young people between the
ages of fifteen and 29 make up nearly a third
of the region›s population, another third are
below the age of fifteen. This “demographic
momentum” will last for at least the next two
decades, and offers an historic opportunity
which Arab countries must seize...

...The report explores the many challenges
which youth in the Arab region continue to
face. Many continue to receive an education
which does not reflect the needs of labour
markets. High numbers of young people,
particularly young women, are unemployed
and excluded from the formal economy.
Young people without livelihoods find it
difficult to establish an independent home
and form their own family units. The risk
for these young people is that instead of
exploring opportunities and discovering
future prospects, they experience
frustration, helplessness, alienation, and

...Youth empowerment requires enhancing
the capabilities of young people. Delivery
systems for basic services, particularly in
education and health, must be improved.
The opportunities available to youth must
be expanded – through economies which
generate decent work and encourage
entrepreneurship, political environments
which encourage freedom of expression
and active participation, and social systems
which promote equality and act against all
forms of discrimination.

...Religion is a strong factor in fuelling the
current political conflicts in the Arab
countries. To varying degrees that range
from moderation to extremism, religious
arguments are frequently used to garner
support, gain advantages and attack
adversaries. Religion is a reference point 

Inga kommentarer: